A modern world would be unimaginable without electric arc welding – it is one of the oldest processes for joining metals and used all over the world. It is generally known as MMA (manual metal arc welding). Electric arc welding with stick electrodes is still indispensable in steel and pipeline construction and can be used under all weather conditions. Today, around 25 to 30% of the world’s welded products are produced with this process.
Electric arc welding with stick electrodes is one of the oldest and most versatile welding processes. And it is also considered as one of the simplest and safest methods. It is used to weld almost all types of metals. Stick electrodes are even used for underwater welding.
According to the European Norm DIN EN ISO 2560, there are a total of eight different types of coated stick electrodes for arc welding of unalloyed steels and fine-grained steel. The four main types are named after their main components:
- C (Cellulose) cellulose electrodes
- A (Acid) acid electrodes*
- R (Rutile) rutile electrodes
- B (Basic) basic electrodes
Acid electrodes can hardly be found anymore and have been almost completely replaced by rutile electrodes.
These coating types are a very important differentiator for the unalloyed stick electrodes. Stick electrodes for high strength, creep resistant or high-alloyed steels according to the other EN standards are mostly coated with rutile or basic coating elements.
Cellulose-coated stick electrodes
Due to the high level of cellulose in the coating, they have excellent properties for out-of-position welding, but poor properties for horizontal welding. They are therefore mainly used for vertical-down welding on large pipes.
Rutile-coated stick electrodes
These electrodes are very popular due to their good welding properties. The welding arc is stable and calm and is easy to reignite, the seams are finely rippled, and most of the slag comes off by itself. Rutile-coated electrodes have sufficient toughness properties, but are only suitable for out-of-position welding to a limited extent (high-alloy). BÖHLER electrodes for under water welding are a special type namely rutile acid (RA). They have a special sealing to protect against the water.
Basic-coated stick electrodes
The main advantages of basic electrodes are the outstanding toughness properties of the weld metal and its resistance to hot and cold cracks. Basic-coated electrodes have a coarse droplet material transfer, can be used to weld in all positions and have somewhat coarsely rippled seams. The slag can be relatively easily removed, but not as easily as with rutile-coated electrodes.
Stick electrode portfolio
Each type of steel needs a different stick electrode. It can be differentiated between the following steel types:
- Stick electrodes for unalloyed steels
- Stick electrodes for high-strength steels
- Stick electrodes for creep resistant steels
- Stick electrodes for stainless steels
- Stick electrodes for nickel and nickel alloys
|BÖHLER FOX OHV||Unalloyed Steels||Rutile Coating|
|BÖHLER FOX ETI||Unalloyed Steels||Rutile Coating|
|Phoenix Grün T||High-Strength Steels||Rutile Coating|
|Phoenix SH Gelb R||High-Strength Steels||Rutile Coating|
|BÖHLER FOX EV 50||High-Strength Steels||Basic Coating|
|Phoenix 120 K||High-Strength Steels||Basic Coating|
|BÖHLER FOX EV 65||High-Strength Steels||Basic Coating|
|BÖHLER FOX EV 70||High-Strength Steels||Basic Coating|
|BÖHLER FOX EV 75||Pipeline Welding||Basic Coating|
|BÖHLER FOX EV 85||Pipeline Welding||Basic Coating|
|Phoenix SH Ni 2 K 90||Pipeline Welding||Basic Coating|
|Phoenix SH Ni 2 K 130||Pipeline Welding||Basic Coating|
|BÖHLER FOX CEL 85||Pipeline Welding||Basic Coating|
|BÖHLER FOX CEL 90||Creep Resistant Steels||Basic Coating|
|BÖHLER FOX EV 70 Pipe||Creep Resistant Steels||Basic Coating|
|BÖHLER FOX CM 5 Kb||Creep Resistant Steels||Basic Coating|
|BÖHLER FOX C 9 MV||Creep Resistant Steels||Basic Coating|
|Thermanit MTS 3-LNi||Creep Resistant Steels||Basic Coating|
|Thermanit MTS 616-LNi||Creep Resistant Steels||Basic Coating|
|BÖHLER FOX EAS 2-A||Stainless Steels||Rutile Coating|
|BÖHLER FOX EAS 4 M-A||Stainless Steels||Rutile Coating|
|BÖHLER FOX EASN 25 M||Stainless Steels||Basic Coating|
|BÖHLER FOX CN 20/25 M||Stainless Steels||Basic, Rutile Coating|
|Avesta 2205||Stainless Steels||Rutile Coating|
|Avesta 2205 basic||Stainless Steels||Basic Coating|
|Avesta 2507 P100||Stainless Steels|
|Avesta 2507 P100 rutile||Stainless Steels|
|Thermanit Nicro 82||Nickel and Nickel Alloys||Basic Coating|
|Thermanit 625||Nickel and Nickel Alloys||Basic Coating|
|Thermanit 617||Nickel and Nickel Alloys||Basic Coating|